Preheat oven to 450 degrees F (230 degrees C). Grease rimmed baking sheet with non-stick cooking spray.
Combine brown sugar, cumin, cardamom, coriander, ginger, salt, and cayenne pepper in a bowl and mix well. Arrange chicken breasts in a single layer on the prepared baking sheet, skin sides up. Pat spice blend on chicken.
Bake chicken in preheated oven until meat is no longer pink inside, about 25 minutes.
While chicken is cooking, combine balsamic vinegar, peach preserves, chicken broth, and orange juice in a small saucepan. Bring to a boil over medium heat. Simmer, stirring occasionally, until mixture is thickened and reduced to about 1 cup, about 10 minutes.
Remove baking sheet from oven. Place peach slices around chicken and pour sauce over the top. Bake until glaze caramelizes on chicken and peaches and an instant-read thermometer inserted in the thickest part of a chicken breast, not touching bone, reads 165 degrees F (75 degrees C), an additional 10 minutes.