Place the potatoes into a large pot and cover with salted water. Bring to a boil; reduce heat to medium-low, cover, and simmer until tender, about 20 minutes. Drain and allow to steam dry for a minute or two. Remove and discard the skins; mash the flesh of the potatoes into coarse chunks.
Heat the oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Fry the red chile peppers, urad dal, cumin seeds, and mustard seeds in the hot oil until the seeds begin to splutter; add the green chile peppers, curry leaves, ginger, and asafoetida powder and fry together for 1 minutes. Stir the potatoes, turmeric, and 1 cup water into the mixture; season with salt and ground red pepper.
Mix the chickpea flour and 1 tablespoon water together in a small bowl to make a paste; stir into the potato mixture and cook until it thickens, 2 to 3 minutes. Pour the lime juice over the dish and garnish with cilantro to serve.