Heat the oil in a large skillet; fry the cloves, bay leaves, cinnamon sticks, cardamom pods, and cumin seeds in the hot oil until fragrant, 2 to 3 minutes. Stir the onion and ginger-garlic paste into the spice mixture and continue cooking until the onions are golden brown, 5 to 7 minutes. Add the carrots, potatoes, green beans, peas, and rice; cook and stir for 2 minutes. Pour the water over the mixture and season with salt; gently mix to incorporate.
Bring the mixture to a full boil; cover and reduce heat to low. Cook on low until the rice is tender, about 20 minutes. Remove the cover and cook another 15 minutes. Stir gently before serving.