Make a marinade by combining the fish sauce, chile peppers, and garlic in a shallow dish.
Lay beef into the marinade, turning to coat.
Marinate beef in refrigerator 8 hours to overnight.
Remove the beef from the marinade and shake off excess liquid. Discard the remaining marinade.
Heat 1 tablespoon peanut oil in a large skillet or wok over medium-high heat. Cook and stir beef in hot oil until hot but slightly pink in the center, 3 to 5 minutes; remove from oil with a slotted spoon to a plate lined with paper towel.
Heat remaining tablespoon peanut oil in the skillet; cook and stir asparagus in hot oil until tender, about 5 minutes.
Pour beef stock into the pan and bring to a simmer.
Return the beef to the pan. Add the basil and continue cooking until hot, about 1 minute more.