Bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil. Cook linguine at a boil until tender yet firm to the bite, about 11 minutes; rinse with cold water and drain.
Stir linguine, mushrooms, cherry tomatoes, green pepper, red peppers, onion, and cucumber together in a large bowl.
Blend sugar, vinegar, ketchup, onion powder, celery seed, Worcestershire sauce, salt, ground mustard, paprika, and garlic powder in a blender. Pour the vegetable oil in a steady stream into the blender while the mixture is blending. Mix a few seconds longer until the salad dressing is thick and creamy.
Pour dressing over pasta mixture and toss to coat. Cover with plastic wrap and refrigerate for at least 1 hour.