Combine flour and baking soda in a small bowl, set aside. Cream butter, sugar, brown sugar, and pudding mix in the bowl of an electric mixer on medium speed until smooth. Beat in eggs until thoroughly combined. Gradually beat in flour mixture and mix until just combined. Stir in nuts.
Chill dough for 30 minutes. Drop by rounded tablespoonful onto cookie sheet. Bake 7-8 minutes (cookie will be soft and just barely done). Cool on cookie sheet for 1 minute then top each cookie with chopped caramels pressing caramel pieces into the top of each cookie. Let stand 5 minutes before removing to a wire rack to cool.