Combine cumin, salt, dried chipotle pepper, and paprika in a large, resealable plastic bag. Seal bag and shake to mix. Measure 2 teaspoons of the seasoning into a large bowl; add diced tomatoes with green chile peppers, black beans, and corn to the bowl and stir.
Put chicken in the bag with the remaining seasoning; shake to coat.
Heat olive oil in a large skillet over high heat. Turn seasoned chicken out into the skillet, add red onion, and saute in the hot oil until the chicken is browned, about 5 minutes.
Reduce heat to medium-high. Stir tomato mixture with the chicken; bring to a boil, add rice, and stir.
Reduce heat to low. Sprinkle Cheddar cheese over the chicken mixture. Place a cover on the skillet and simmer until the rice is tender and the chicken no longer pink in the middle, about 5 minutes. Remove from heat to cool for 5 minutes before serving.